A Homesteader’s Insurance Policy

Peaceful Forest Homestead

Peaceful Forest Homestead

Do you have a homesteader’s insurance policy in place? Almost every time I get disgusted with this life because it is hard or so different from everyone else I know, something happens to reinforce that this lifestyle is the only way to survive. Especially in the times we are living in. News of terrorists attacking people in nightclubs, schools, movie theaters, churches, etc. What that tells me is that for some reason, something inside of me told me to live this lifestyle. To live on our homestead and work from home. To start doing most of our shopping online. I don’t even drive a car anymore, though I plan on getting one in the future. I do not go to crowded places very often. Sometimes I will go with my husband to a nearby city to do some shopping, but usually I go to stores in our area that is more country than city.

Wind Power Today

Wind Power Today


For sixteen years now, we have been building our homestead to be more technical than most homesteaders do. My husband loves new technology. He has always said, “Our homestead is not old fashioned, but the way of the future.” I like that sentiment. Using solar and wind, working online, shopping online, growing our own food, etc. it is all part of the modern technology that enables us to live the way we do. Some of the old technology that many mistakenly think is old fashioned, is just a better way. For instance, our pitcher pump. It was thought of as modern technology at one time. Still working after all this time. Now this year I added a solar oven to our modern technology list of items we use. Not only does it do the cooking, but it can be used to dehydrate food. Instead of using our system to power an electric dehydrator, I can use the sun. All of these tools or methods we use, old fashioned or high technology, are a part of our homesteader’s insurance policy.  

Canning Closet

Canning Closet in Kitchen

An interesting thought we have had is that many things that we did because of moving to an off-the-grid house, that others thought was silly, stupid or too hard to do, have turned out to be the way the general population is going now. Instead of paying an electric, fuel and water bill, we were purchasing more solar panels, more components for this system, a wind turbine to keep power coming in during storms and at night and being able to buy the most energy efficient refrigerator that is built presently. We have been gardening since 1996 and canning our harvests. Now canning has been making a comeback. I am glad to see that. When I purchased my first canning jars from an elderly woman who’s husband had died and she felt she had no need for so many jars, I was excited and looking forward to canning a lot of food. Which I did. I saw the price of the jars go up.  The huge amount of jars that I bought for thirty bucks is unheard of now. Now everyone wants to prepare. To have home canned food in their root cellars, pantries and cupboards. That IS the homesteader’s insurance policy! 

Garden

Food Supply


If you are wondering what exactly is the homesteader’s insurance policy anyway? Well, that is what I am telling you right now. It is when you no longer worry about having food and supplies in your house. It is when you do not have to run out to shop if a storm or other disaster is on the way. It is when you have ways to heat your house, cook your food, store your cold foods, take a shower, wash your clothes, etc. It is when you can be isolated at your home for days, weeks or months at a time and live comfortably and happily. It is when you can go pick up other family members and bring them to your home and it not be a hardship to feed them too. I do not have to read articles or books about prepping, because when I do, I usually know more than they do. We live it every day. If you consider yourself a prepper, start living this way every day, instead of just when there is an emergency. Start using your food supply and replenishing it as you use it. Start up that generator now, so you know how to use it. Cook on that solar oven you bought two years ago and never took out of the box, now. Learn to cook on it this summer by cooking on it daily, so that when you really do need it, you will know how to use it. Good food helps in an emergency!  

Planting a garden

Plant a garden!

Start working on your own homesteader’s insurance policy today! How? Basic needs first:

Water – Store some in food grade containers. Find a way to have a water source in case of an emergency and no power.

Heat – A wood stove will serve three purposes: heating, hot water and cooking.

Food – Plant a garden. Buy food locally in a farmer’s market or at a farm. Learn to can and get started building a pantry of food. Food in a freezer does not count as you can easily lose that in a power outage or a faulty freezer. Besides in an emergency canned food is easier to cook. Get to work on it today!

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Copyright © 2016 Kathleen G. Lupole
All Photographs Copyright © 2016 Kathleen G. Lupole


Homestead Planning is the Key

Georgie Girl

Georgie Girl

Homestead planning is the key!  As our year comes to a close, I wonder what things we can accomplish in the coming new year. Every year, we do more and more and our home becomes easier to manage. Some years in the past, we have not gotten nearly as much done as we would have liked. This past year was very productive for us in many ways. I would have to say the last two years were a success. We have made changes in our homestead that has made our life much easier in many ways. As we get older that is a good thing. I know when you are young, you think you will never get old. If you are lucky, you will.

Our raised beds

Some of our raised beds

This is the first year that I have had to buy more canning jars, since I filled up all the ones I had. That means part of my homesteading planning always takes place in the garden and the kitchen. Our garden was very successful and that makes me want to make it even better next summer. We have plans for planting some fruit trees and berry bushes. Fruit is something we are sadly lacking. The seed catalogs have been coming in very quickly this year. I have picked out the varieties I want to plant. We are really excited about the next gardening season! I am going to take the bull by the horn, so to speak, and take a chance on planting tomatoes once again. I am armed with information now, on how to fight the Late Blight. We shall see. I have to try.

Inside the rood cellar

Inside the root cellar

Our root cellar will be usable by next year. Actually it is usable this year, but I haven’t cleaned it out and organized it yet. That will be one of the first things I will do as part of my homestead planning in the spring. All our canned foods, hopefully, will be able to go downstairs. In the kitchen canning cupboard, I keep a number of each kind of food that I canned. When I use it up, I will go downstairs and replenish it. That way it is convenient for me when I am in the process of fixing a meal. Right now, all those jars are in Rubbermaid containers upstairs. 

House

House

All spring, summer and fall, firewood work is a major part of our homestead planning. Gathering kindling and stacking it for the next winter. Cutting and splitting firewood. This year, hopefully, we will be changing the chimney on our wood stove in the living room from 6″ to 8″. Changing the elbow upstairs to no elbow and fixing the rain cap and putting on a new roof on that portion of the house. The hearth too, will be improved and designed for efficiency. It will be much better and will use less wood. It will improve our homestead’s efficiency and keep our house even warmer. Making a plan for your homestead will always increase the improvements you make to it. Write it down! Pay attention to it. Then when spring rolls around, start to work on it! Good luck!

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Copyright © 2014 Kathleen G. Lupole
All Photographs Copyright © 2014 Kathleen G. Lupole


Our Little Piece Of Land

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Our house in 1999

Finding our little piece of land in the forest was not easy, but was well worth it. Most people who have never been to New York state associate the rest of the state with New York City. Many times they think we haven’t even seen a cow or a tree. New York state is a big dairy state and has lots of farmland all over the whole state. New York City actually makes up a very small part of the state as a whole. New York state also has acres and acres of state forest and state parks. Trees and mountains make up much of our Empire state. I always thought we should have been called the Forest State. I have traveled all over the whole country  and I have not seen such a welcoming sight, as the green mountains of Pennsylvania and New York. Taxes may be high here, but we get plenty of rain and our beautiful forests in return. Our little piece of land doesn’t have high taxes, but that is probably because we are in an area of hunting camps.

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Our road in 1999

Our  little piece of land, I named Peaceful Forest Homestead. It is in the middle of the state forest. I used to say our only neighbors, are the wild kind and hunting camps, but we have a neighbor up the road, walking distance now. Our home was originally a farm and in 1924 became a hunting camp. Then later it became a snowmobile camp too, until we purchased it in 1999. The house is called a Greek Revival style house and was built in 1850. In fact, when my husband was working on digging out a room connected to our cellar, he found an 1848 penny. It may have belonged to the man who built our home. I have always wondered about the man who built this house on this little piece of land.

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Horses’ paddock before they came to live here.

Our little piece of land is bordered by forest and state forest on two sides. That means many large trees. The forest is very thick and every now and then it is logged to thin it out. At first we didn’t like it when they did that, but now we see the value of it, and we have done that on our land ourselves. The woods came right up to our house and had to be cleared for gardens. All the roads leading to our house are dirt, but are well taken care of. Our road looks to me, like a trail through the woods. Sometimes the grass grows in the middle of it, and I like that. The forest keeps it cool out here so when everyone else is sweating the summer weather, our home is usually about 10 degrees cooler.

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Land was cleared for the paddock.

We had searched for over four years for our little piece of land. Both of us loved the forest and used to drive through state forest in both New York and Pennsylvania. We would see homes in the middle of the state forest and say, “How did they get a house in the middle of the state forest?” Now people ask me that question. My answer is “Keep searching! They are out there.”

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Our Front Yard in 1999

At first, I did not realize that the house was off the grid. Or that it did not have plumbing. No running water! No bathroom! It had an outhouse quite a distance from the house though. Before we moved here we purchased a claw foot bath tub and a SunMar composting toilet. The bath tub my husband found at an antique store when he was out driving a truck for his company making deliveries. He stopped and put a deposit on it. Exactly what we wanted. I love it to this day! The SunMar I found in our local Pennysaver for sale, used for $200. I called about it and they said someone else had called and whoever got there first with the money could have it. We drove right there and came home with our new composting toilet.

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Garden In front yard in 2000.

The day we moved in we found out that the previous owners had left all their furniture in the house. We had a moving van full of our stuff which would not fit with their stuff. To top it off, we had to move in during the middle of a downpour. My son, Jeffrey helped us, and stayed with us for a few weeks which was a big help. We had to unload the van and take it back the next day, so he had to put our things in the house with all that excess of stuff. Not an easy job.  So the first thing after returning the truck, was to haul things to the dump. It wasn’t easy getting our little piece of land organized and everything in place, but we did it.

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Peaceful Forest Homestead 2013

But throughout it all, our little piece of land has turned out to be a good homestead and we have made it our happy home.

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Copyright © 2013 Kathleen G. Lupole
All Photographs Copyright © 2013 Kathleen G. Lupole


Handling A Power Outage

Peaceful Forest Homestead

Alternative energy systems are not a joke anymore!


Power outages happen all the time. If your electricity went out for a day, would it be a big deal? What about if it went out for 10 days? Now would that affect you and your family? What about at your job? That may be a big deal. Many businesses depend on the computer system nowadays. 

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Lets say for instance, you got up in the morning to get ready for work and the electric coffeemaker does not start. Now what do you do? You have to take a shower, get breakfast and get to work. And what about families? Yes, CHILDREN! What do you do now? Get some cereal out and feed them cold cereal since you may have to use up the milk in the refrigerator anyway. 

Winter

Winter


If you do not have young children and do not have to go to a job, it may be easier to handle. It would depend on the weather too. Cold winter weather means you need some type of heat that does not use electric. It can be a good sign if you have a means to heat your home that does not use electricity, since cold winter weather can be a means of keeping your food cold. Make ice during the night. I have done that many times during the winter. Put plastic jugs outside with water inside to freeze and then stick it in your refrigerator or freezer to hold the cold temperatures as long as possible.

Kerosene Lamp

Lights

Hot summer weather is a whole other story. At least if it is hot you don’t have to worry about heating! Water pumping, refrigeration, cooking food, etc. All things to think and plan for. People down south, would be very uncomfortable without their air conditioners, though there are methods to keep cool that are pretty easy to set up. 

Pitcher Pump

Do you think you could live like people did before electric existed? No? Even though I have an alternative electric system, I could live that way. In fact, when we first moved into our house, we did live that way. We had no generator and no solar electric system at that time. Basically, we still live that way somewhat, but not all the time. Some of the items we use are not electric but run on batteries or solar that is separate from the solar electric system.

secluded road

Our road

The only advice I can offer you is to right now make a plan. Plan for what you would do in case of a major blackout. Plan what you would do for:

  • Fuel – Heating and cooking
  • Water – For cooking, drinking, bathing, cleaning and pets or livestock, 
  • Refrigeration of your food that is presently in your refrigerator and freezer, 
  • Cooling – depending on the weather and where you live, plan for cooling to replace electric air conditioning 
  • Food – Make sure you have enough food stocked that does not have to be cooked. 

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Think about this today. Get started as soon as possible if you have not been taking “Doomsday Preppers” serious. Now is the time think about it. A power outage can happen at any day or hour. It doesn’t have to be caused by a storm. Just be prepared and you can sit back and not be so stressed over it. And if it doesn’t happen? Just keep preparing for the day when it really does happen. You never know. 

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Copyright © 2013 Kathleen G. Lupole
All Photographs Copyright © 2013 Kathleen G. Lupole


“Prepping” Or Independence? Which Do You Do?

Secluded

Living Secluded


Is  “prepping” or ” independence” in your plans? Today everyone is trying to “prep” or prepare in case something happens in the world. Or our country. Whatever happens that makes it so you cannot shop or get supplies. Some people believe it means you won’t be able to leave your home because there will be nothing to go to. Books about this situation are a hot topic on Amazon right now. I have read a few. They are interesting, but as for me, whatever happens, happens. I cannot change the outcome of anything. 

Fall In NY

Fall


Am I going to get stressed over it and worry about it? Not really. For me, it’d be a waste of time. My husband and I discuss this often after reading what is posted on Facebook that day. We just keep taking our life one step at a time and making headway in our own plans. At our age, we aren’t going to make any drastic changes in how we live or what we do. That is  how we do everything, in moderation. Don’t worry about something till it happens. In fact, if something like that did happen and you had to live independently for the rest of your life, wouldn’t you run out of the “prepping” supplies?  So I am back to “prepping” or “independence,” which means if you chose independence, the prepping supplies would not matter.

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Our Road


It is true that we live off-the-grid, but we didn’t do that as a form of “prepping.” We wanted to do it as a form of independence. Even if we bought another property that had power lines going right by it, we would not hook up to the utility company. We have learned how to operate our own power system and I think we’d stick with that form of living. Now I am not sure if when you build a new house if you have to hook up if it is available in the area you are building in or not. The thing to strive for is knowing you can take care of yourself and your family if something did happen. Don’t worry about the supplies, instead learn how to do things. Skills and knowledge will be the best preparations you can do right now! 

Horses

Our Horses


Our future may include moving to a larger piece of land that is more secluded if possible. I am always browsing the local real estate listings to see if any catch my eye. In many ways, we’d like that even better than our little homestead here. Having a larger piece of land where we could graze our horses would be better for them and for us. Here we spend a lot of money buying hay. That is not a form of independence at all. Pasture would be. I’d rather they were out on a pasture. So would they! 

katlupe

 

Copyright © 2013 Kathleen G. Lupole
All Photographs Copyright © 2013 Kathleen G. Lupole


I Love My New SunDanzer Refrigerator!

SunDanzer

Our New Refrigerator!

Having lived for over six years without a refrigerator, having one now has changed my life. My husband thought it was time to buy one. We bought the SunDanzer 8.0 cubic foot one. It is built like a chest freezer and is a way better than an energy star appliance. I think the SunDanzer is laughing at those energy hogs!

SunDanzer

In The Pantry! It fits!

It took up a good bit of room in my pantry, but hey, I had an ice chest in here before. The ice chest would sweat and get the floor all wet. This little gem, is as quiet as can be and keeps our food so cold. My husband loves his ice cold milk now. It does not have a freezer. When we decide to add a freezer, we will buy another SunDanzer, but the freezer model. So no ice cream for now!

SunDanzer light

Light On!

The food is put on the floor of the appliance and in the shelves. They move from side to side. It is the perfect size for the two of us. What a difference to be able to stock up on some meat and dairy items. I used to lose quite a bit of food in the summer. Not to mention buying 2-3 bags of ice every day. Grocery shopping was taking a toll on us. Neither one of us wanted to go to the store. Sometimes I’d hold out, knowing my husband’s hunger would get him in the truck and on the way! LOL

SunDanzer Inside

Side shelf is over the motor.

 The little shelf on the side is built over the motor. It comes in handy as a shelf and I have been keeping all the dairy products there. Since I eat low carbs, dairy is a very important part of my food plan and I had a hard time keeping it in an ice chest. When the ice would melt it would get everything slimy. Yuck!

SunDanzer

Movable shelves on top.

It really was not that expensive compared to brand new refrigerators. Of course, I know they have a freezer. They automatically defrost and this does not. I will have to do it. Keeping it clean and at the right temperature will help in that chore. But the SunDanzer refrigerator uses less electric than my laptop does! It is hooked up directly to our batteries and does not need the inverter to be turned on to run. It stays running, because it is DC instead of AC. That is why it is called a solar refrigerator. Excuse me, while I go get a cold drink! 

katlupe
 

Copyright © 2013 Kathleen G. Lupole
All Photographs Copyright © 2013 Kathleen G. Lupole


Creosote Builds Up In The Chimney Pipe

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The elbow is at the back of the stove.

Creosote builds up in the chimney of wood stoves.  That is what you hear fall down your pipe at times. If you are heating your home with a wood stove, cleaning your chimney should be a top priority. Do not put it off! My husband does it often. He does not have a set time frame of doing it. Since we burn a lot of wood and our chimney needs to be changed, he has to do it more than some might. We are burning a really dry hardwood this year. It makes a lot of ash in the stove which has to be emptied out when it builds up. 

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Creosote

Creosote collects in the elbows of the stove pipe. When it is cleaned up, an old feedbag is placed underneath the elbow of the stove. As the elbow is pulled apart the creosote will fall onto the paper bag. Then you have to reach up inside the pipe, and make the rest of it in the pipe, fall down through the pipe. Upstairs my husband drops a chain down into the pipe and moves it around a bit. It knocks more creosote down. It is a messy job!

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Worn out elbow needs replacing.

Our chimney needs to be changed from 6″ pipe to 8″ pipe. Our wood stove is very large and needs a larger stove pipe. That pipe will go straight up and out, through the roof from the first elbow. The second elbow upstairs will then be eliminated. Straight up through the upstairs, and out the roof. It will work much better that way. 

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Brand new elbows

Our rain cap needs to be replaced. Then we will not have rust building up in the elbow. The elbows and pipe are replaced from time to time. Triple wall pipe is in the areas where the stove pipe comes up through the floor and the roof. That way the hot pipe has no contact with the wood of the house. That is VERY important!

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Elbow connection

We buy extra elbows and chimney parts to have on hand, just in case we need to replace a part in an emergency. We once had our whole chimney pipe fall down from upstairs, on a Sunday night (when the hardware store was not open) and it was dark and cold! My husband luckily, had parts in the barn to fix it. The elbow had rusted and just gave out. Our wood cook stove has a straight pipe and hardly ever needs cleaning. A straight pipe with no elbows is the best. But we love our big wood heating stove! So we prepare and have plans to fix the pipe this year. That’ll make our job easier!

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Copyright © 2013 Kathleen G. Lupole
All Photographs Copyright © 2012 Kathleen G. Lupole


Our Forest Homestead In New York State

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Forest makes up much of NY state

Most people who have never been to New York state associate the rest of the state with New York City. Many times they think we haven’t even seen a cow or a tree! New York state is a big dairy state and has lots of farmland all over the whole state. New York City actually makes up a very small part of the state as a whole. New York state also has acres and acres of state forest and state parks. Trees and mountains make up much of our Empire state. I always thought we should have been called the Forest State! I have traveled all over the whole country, and believe me, have not seen such a welcoming sight as the green mountains of Pennsylvania and New York! Taxes may be high, but we get plenty of rain and our beautiful forests in return.

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New York farm land!

Our Peaceful Forest Homestead is in the middle of the state forest in upstate New York. Our only neighbors, besides the wild kind are hunting camps. Our home was originally a farm and in 1924 became a hunting camp, until we purchased it in 1999. The house is what is called a Greek Revival style house and was built in 1850. In fact, when my husband was working on digging out a room connected to our cellar, he found a 1848 penny! My treasure! It may have belonged to the smart man who built our home. I have wondered about him many times through out our years here.

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In 1999

Our small piece of land is totally surrounded by the state forest. That means there are many large trees around us. The forest is very thick, and every now and then it is logged to thin it out. At first we didn’t like it when they did that, but now we see the value of it. We have done that on our land ourselves. The woods came right up to our house and had to be cleared for gardens. All the roads leading to our house are dirt but are well taken care of. Our road looks like a trail through the woods. Sometimes the grass grows in the middle of it and I like that. The forest keeps it cool out here, so when everyone else is sweating the summer weather, our home is usually about 10 degrees cooler.

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Over the bridge and through the woods…….

We had searched for over four years for our place. Both of us loved the forest, and used to drive through state forests in both New York and Pennsylvania. We would see homes in the middle of the state forest, and say, “How did they get a house in the middle of the state forest?” Now people ask me that question! My answer is “Keep searching!” They are out there.

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Nikita in front yard and paddock in 1999.

At first, I did not realize that the house was off the grid. Then I did not realize from looking at the listing that it did not have plumbing. No running water! No bathroom! It had an outhouse quite a distance from the house though. Before we moved here we purchased a claw foot bath tub. Then a Sun-Mar composting toilet. The bath tub, my husband found at an antique store when he was out driving a truck for his company making deliveries. He stopped and put a deposit on it. Exactly what we wanted! The Sun-Mar I found in our local Pennysaver for sale, used for $200. I called about it and they said someone else had called, and whoever got there first with the money could have it. We drove right there and came home with our new composting toilet.

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State Forest

The day we moved in we found out that the previous owners had left all their furniture in the house. We had a moving van full of our stuff which would not fit with their stuff. We were trying to move in during a downpour, because we had to get the rental moving truck back. My son, Jeffrey helped us and stayed with us for a few weeks which was a big help. We had to unload the van and take it back the next day. So we had to put our things in the house with all that extra stuff. Not an easy job! So the first thing after returning the truck was to haul things to the landfill, that we had to pay for! Not what we were expecting to do. We managed to get all moved in and were happy to be in our new off-the-grid homestead!

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Copyright © 2013 Kathleen G. Lupole
All Photographs Copyright © 2012 Kathleen G. Lupole


The Beauty Of Fresh Snow

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Fresh Snow Today!

More snow this morning. Not too bad though, since we are all set for the day. It is when you have to go out and do something that the snow hinders us. I hate to drive in snow and I don’t very often. My husband can drive anywhere, even if the road is not plowed. We can always get out of here. 

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Logs covered with snow!

Cutting firewood can be done in the other seasons when you don’t need it. That will build your piles up and in the winter you can just take from that. We don’t do that. My husband does not like to do firewood then and he has his own ways of doing things. I don’t interfere in what he does or how he does it. We are always warm in the winter and that is all that matters.

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My son on the forest path

Keeping paths shoveled to the various places we need to get to is essential. That way we can move around easily regardless of the snow. Our animals like to use the paths and it isn’t often we will see our cats or dog not using a shoveled path. They like it easy. Our dog though, uses the path as her bathroom and so I try to avoid those paths.

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Trees across the road.

 The beauty of the fresh snowfall is something I always looks forward to. No matter how tough the winter is, God gives us something to enjoy along with that. In fact, the work is something we humans have made for ourselves. If we could live without shoveling, driving somewhere in the snow or at the least, having a load of firewood and hay stored for the winter, then I don’t think the winter would be half bad. 

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Copyright © 2013 Kathleen G. Lupole
All Photographs Copyright © 2012 Kathleen G. Lupole


A Small Affordable Solar System

Solar Panels on Barn Roof

If you would like to live “off-the-grid” there are many ways to get started. Moving to a home that does not have the power companies’ electric lines coming to it makes it much easier. It is already done for you. All you have to do is to move in. That is when the fun starts. At first you can live with no power, but nobody wants to live that way for very long. Everyone eventually, grows older, gets tired of the work involved with doing all those chores using their physical energy. So what to do next?

 

Meter and Charge Controller


Set up your own solar system of course! Everyone has some sun sometime. Free power from the sun is nice. But there are somethings you need to know first. A solar system does not have to cost a lot of money. At least not to get started. In the beginning, when we first moved here we started with one 50 watt solar panel, a tiny charge controller, two fork-lift truck batteries and an automotive inverter bought from a truck stop. When the batteries needed to be charged and there was no sun, (after all, we live in NY state which is the state with the least amount of sun!), we pulled our vehicle up to the house and charged the batteries that way. It is not the most efficient way to do it, but it works.

Cleaning Snow Off Panels

 

Over the years our system has grown. It still is not a big system like you see on all the fancy houses, but it keeps us happy. Truthfully, as long as I can use my computer that is all I care about powering. Our system now has five solar panels and they are on the barn roof. My husband studied our sunlight over the years as to where the best place to move the panels to would be. On the barn roof, they get the most sun for the longest periods of the day. During all seasons. There are periods that the sun moves and there are periods where they get the sun longer in the afternoon than real early in the morning.

 

Xantrex inverter

 

Our inverter is where the DC power is converted to AC for use. A charge controller controls how much power comes into the batteries. Overcharging the batteries ruins them. The meter is another important component of our system It tells where our power is at and whether we need to charge the batteries, or how much power the sun is bringing in. The meter is also used to check how much power electric gadgets or appliances use.

 

Solar Panels

 

You do not have to be “off-the-grid” to use an alternative energy system though. One way you can learn to use one is to set up the small system and power just your lights, televisons and computers. Then add to the system as you can afford it. It is a good way to learn how to use one as well as keeping your house powered during power outages in your area. My blog, Solar Baby is full of information on how to do this.

 

katlupe

Copyright © 2012 Kathleen G. Lupole
All Photographs Copyright © 2012 Kathleen G. Lupole